By U. Yun Ryo, Abass Alavi, B. David Collier, Carlos Bekerman, st Pinsky
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The Golgi apparatus is also involved in the formation of intracellular organelles such as lysosomes and peroxisomes. 5 μm) formed by the Golgi complex and have a single limiting membrane. Lysosomes maintain an acidic matrix (pH 5 and below) and contain a group of glycoprotein digestive enzymes (hydrolases) that catalyze the rapid breakdown of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates into small basic building molecules. The enzyme content within lysosomes varies and depends on the specific needs of an individual tissue.
All RNA molecules are synthesized in the nucleus. 2 The Cell and Tissue Biology 23 While the enzyme RNA polymerize II is mainly responsible for the synthesis of mRNA, RNA polymerases I and III mediate the synthesis of rRNA and tRNA, respectively. 3 Genetic Code The genetic code in a DNA sense strand consists of a specific nucleotide sequence coded in successive “triplets” that will eventually control the sequence of amino acids in a protein molecule. During transcription, a complementary code of triplets in the mRNA molecule, called codons, is synthesized.
It is very important to note that mitochondria in the cytoplasm are also replicated before mitosis starts, since they have their own DNA. Based on specific events during nuclear division, mitosis is subcategorized into four phases. During prophase, the nuclear envelope breaks down, chromosome condensation continues, and the centromere of the chromatids is attached to opposite poles of the spindle. During early metaphase, the spindle fibers pull the centromeres to the center, forming an equatorial plate.