By Prof. L. Brandsma, Prof. H. D. Verkruijsse, Prof. S. F. Vasilevsky (auth.)
Homogeneous catalysis is a vital method for the synthesis of high-valued chemical compounds. L. Brandsma has rigorously chosen and checked the experimental strategies illustrating the catalytic use of copper, nickel, and palladium compounds in natural synthesis. All strategies are on a preparative scale, make financial use of solvents and catalysts, steer clear of poisonous ingredients and feature excessive yields.
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Additional resources for Application of Transition Metal Catalysts in Organic Synthesis
After dissolution of the metal the solution was concentrated to a volume of -250 ml, using a water aspirator and a rotary evaporator. The adduct from isobutene and bromine was added portionwise over 15 min, while allowing the temperature to rise to 60 DC. After the exothermic reaction had subsided, the suspension was stirred for an additional hour at 60 DC. p. > 170 DC) petroleum. stopped as soon as petroleum began to pass over at >55 DCI15 mmHg). p. 4608, in 78% yield. 8 (m, 6H) ppm. 50 molar.
22 mol (24 g) of diisopropylamine and 120 ml of THF, while keeping the temperature between 0 and -20°C (cooling in a bath with nitrogen allows a quick addition by syringe). 4 g) of 2,5-dibromothiophene was added in one portion. The temperature was allowed to rise to -10°C (a purple solution was formed) at which level stirring was continued for an additional 15 min. The dark mixture was then poured into 500 ml of an aqueous solution of 30 g of ammonium chloride. After vigorous shaking, the layers were separated.
QCLi .. 50 molar. Apparatus: 1-1 round-bottomed, three-necked flask, equipped with a dropping funnel-nitrogen inlet combination, a mechanical stirrer and a thermometer-outlet combination. 50 mol (113 g) of2,3-dibromofuran and 50 ml of dry diethyl ether was placed in the flask. 50 mol of ethyllithium [see L. D. Verkruijsse, Synthesis of Acetylenes, Allenes and Cumulenes, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1981) and L. D. Verkruijsse, Preparative Polar Organometallic Chemistry, Vol. 1, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg (1987)) in -500 ml of diethyl ether was added over about half an hour, while keeping the reaction mixture (with occasional cooling in a bath with liquid nitrogen) at --80 0c.