By Robert Irvin Curtis
This article discusses techniques in foodstuff processing and upkeep from the palaeolithic interval via to the overdue Roman Empire. It considers the critical position foodstuff expertise performed within the political, financial, and social textile of historical society.
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P. 0 mya. Found in association with the hominids were stone tools, such as hammer-stones, Hakes, and cores, but no handaxes or cleavers. This fact, plus the presence of certain morphological differences, set these hominids off from African or Asian H. erectus and from later II. sapiens neanderthalensis. T h e y seem, therefore, to be precursors to archaic H. sapiens found in G e r m a n y at M a u e r (H. heidelbergensis), although they may constitute a new species altogether (H. 31 Acheulian artifacts continue to characterize 30 T h e C e p r a n o fossil, f o u n d in Italy ca.
Science 2 8 4 (23 April 1999): 5 7 2 - 7 3 ; J e a n d e Heinzelln, J . D e s m o n d C l a r k , T i m W h i t e , William H a r t , Paul R e n n e , G i d a y W o l d e G a b r i e l , Y o n a s B e y e n e , a n d Elisabeth V r b a , " E n v i r o n m e n t a n d B e h a v i o r of 2 . 5 - M i l l i o n - Y e a r - O l d Bouri H o m i n i d s , " Science 2 8 4 (23 April 1999): 6 2 5 . 2 9 ־ 18 T h e e n d o c r a n i a l capacity of H. habilis is ca. 190 cc g r e a t e r t h a n that of A.
Kung, however, capuchin monkeys do not periodically retouch their tools, and they a b a n d o n them after use. 45 T h e various australopithecines, therefore, probably functioned at this level, although some differences a m o n g them are discernible. P. robustus, relative to estimated body weight, had smaller anterior (incisors and canines) but larger posterior (molars) teeth than did the gracile australopithecines, A. afarensis and A. africanus. T h e posterior teeth were used for crushing a n d / o r grinding during mastication.