By Howell G M Edwards; Peter Vandenabeele
Content material: creation; half I. ANALYTICAL equipment: advent; tools of Visualisation; Vibrational spectroscopy; X-Ray equipment; Nuclear suggestions; equipment of separation; Mass spectrometry; Electrochemical strategies; half II. fabrics: Ceramics and enamels; Glass; Stone; Gemstones/minerals; Obsidian; Pigments and dyes; Icons and work; Metals / corrosion; Biomaterials; Resins, bitumens, tar, coal; Ivory and bones; wooden; Textiles; modern fabrics; half III: QUESTIONS: identity; Authentication; know-how of creation; Provenancing; relationship; Degradation and conservation; nutritional reconstruction; precis; Index
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26 However, these sensors are currently not implemented in D-SLRs and thus remain largely unsuited for convenient NUV imaging, since the commercial cameras in which they are embedded do not allow changing of the lens. The latter is very important, since optical glass does generally not transmit much NUV and mostly becomes opaque to EM radiation below 350 nm. 54–57 As a result, normal photographic lenses are usually impractical for NUV imaging. 5 with special quartz and fluorite elements for sub-350 nm imaging do exist.
58 To cut-out the contaminating visible and NIR radiation after removal of the internal filter, a very dense visual+NIR block is of the utmost importance in digital NUV imaging. Most classic NUV band-pass filters (such as Schott UG1 and UG11, B+W 403, Kodak Wratten 18A, Nikon FF, Hoya U-330, U-340 and U-360) are Woods-Type filters that still substantially leak NIR,54,55,58 spoiling the pure NUV picture aimed for. In contrast, a Baader Planetarium U-Filter (also called ‘‘Venus Filter’’) exhibits a high NUV transmission from about 320 nm to 390 nm and only leaks less than 1% NIR radiation, an amount that is far too low to perceivably contaminate the digital NUV record.
96 Although NIR photography thus clearly proves to be a very successful method for many applications (see Gibson97 for many other examples), reflected SWIR radiation often enables the visualization of certain features (such as the underdrawing of paintings) even better than NIR imaging as longer IR wavelengths have an increased penetration depth. This was the main reason for the development and application of SWIR reflectography (see later). 5 Fluorescence Photography Besides imaging the reflected portions of the incident wavelengths (often called direct or reflectance photography), NUV, visible and NIR radiation can be used to excite EM radiation of a wavelength longer than the incident wavelengths.