By Roger Daniels
"Once i assumed to write down a background of the immigrants in the United States. Then i found that the immigrants were American history," wrote historian Oscar Handlin. Immigrants and generations in their descendants have outlined the yankee kingdom from its starting and proceed to supply America's attribute variety, representing essentially each race, nationality, faith, and ethnic crew world wide. a few immigrants got here to the hot international looking for monetary achieve. Others have been introduced in chains. nonetheless others came upon safe haven in the US from non secular or ethnic persecution.
This single-volume encyclopedia contains greater than three hundred entries, masking a number of facets of immigration background and policy:
* ethnic teams, together with census and immigration records, significant sessions of immigration and parts of cost, principal faith, and ancient background
* key immigration laws, corresponding to the chinese language Exclusion Act, Immigration Act of 1990, and Refugee Act of 1980
* phrases and ideas, together with eco-friendly card, quota procedure, citizen, naturalization, photograph brides, and nativism
* different types of immigrants, together with refugees, indentured servants, teenagers, and exiles
* immigration stations: Angel Island, citadel backyard, and Ellis Island * spiritual teams and church buildings, corresponding to Amish, Huguenots, Muslims, and japanese ceremony churches
* additional examining lists and cross-references keep on with each one entry
An introductory essay presents a cogent assessment of the whole scope of the ebook. greater than one hundred fifty images and illustrations supplement the entries. Statistical bins complement the articles with key details. a listing of immigration, ethnic, and refugee firms; a advisor to additional study that comes with books, museums, and internet sites; and a close chronology finish this beneficial source for examine in American background, ethnic and multicultural stories, and genealogy.
Oxford's scholar partners to American background are state of the art references for faculty and residential, in particular designed and written for a while 12 via grownup. each one ebook is a concise yet complete A-to-Z consultant to a tremendous old interval or topic in U.S. background, with articles on key concerns and in demand members. The authors--distinguished students famous of their components of expertise--ensure that the entries are actual, updated, and obtainable. targeted positive aspects comprise an introductory part on tips on how to use the ebook, extra studying lists, cross-references, chronology, and entire index.
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Additional resources for American Immigration: A Student Companion (Oxford Student Companions to American History)
The emigration of poor Belgian farmers was often aided by the Belgian government, which subsidized emigration to Algeria and Guatemala as well as to the United States. During the American Civil War some Belgians were recruited in Europe to fight in the Union army. Each ethnic group concentrated in a different area of the Great Lakes states. Both Flemings and Walloons settled heavily in Michigan, and Walloons settled in Wisconsin, Illinois, and Indiana. In most cases neither group established separate identities: Protestant Flemings tended to interact and assimilate with Dutch immigrants, while Wal- loons tended to mix with French and French Canadians.
In addition, many people of Basque ancestry have come to Miami from Fidel Castro's Cuba, where Basques have settled since the 16th century. SEE ALSO Spaniards FURTHER READING Douglas, William, and Jon Bilbao. Amerikanuak: Basques in the New World. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1975. Belgians 1990 Ancestry: 3 80,498 Immigration, 1986-96: 6,765 Immigration, 1820-1996:215,107 Major period of immigration: 1900-24 Major area of settlement: Great Lakes states The nation of Belgium, created by international treaty in 1830, covers about 12,000 square miles in Western Europe and has more than 10 million people.
This essay will treat (1) Austrian immigrants of Germanic extraction during the period of the Empire and (2) any citizen of Austria after that. Contemporary Austria, and particularly its capital, Vienna, is highly multicultural. Many Austrian immigrants to the United States have simply been treated as if they were Germans. A few Austrians came in the colonial period, most important of whom were about fifty families of the approximately 30,000 Protestant Salzburgers who became refugees after the Catholic Bishopprince of Salzburg began persecuting them in the 1730s.