By Alan B. Brinkley, Peter M. Burkholder, Bernard P. Dauenhauer, James K. Feibleman, Carol A. Kates, Sandra B. Rosenthal, James Leroy Smith (auth.)
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For, although aesthetic properties do not depend on universal sufficient conditions, some of them do depend on tropes. Trope theory accordingly permits us to slip between the horns of the dilemma which would face anyone who supposed that every occurrence of an aesthetic property must either have a universal sufficient condition or not be consequent on other features of its object. One horn of that dilemma yields aesthetic rationalism, a theory which, by implying that aesthetic properties are inferable from other features of their objects, unduly minimizes the role of direct sense-perception in art criticism.
In a very weak sense, there are universals. But a universal is merely an aggregate of similar abstract particular characters (called by Williams "tropes"); it is not, in all strictness, a feature that numerically diverse objects can share. For instance, if two pictures both are yellow, the yellow of one picture is one character, and that of the other is another, even if both are of the same shade; and they can never be exactly the same entity. Moreover, an abstract noun such as "yellowness," which is sometimes said to name a literally single and common property, is actually a general term denoting a similarity-aggregate of tropes.
Le Senne thus accounts for the origin of the experience of artistic value by locating it at the intersection of man's encounter with determination and his hopeful dealing with that determination in a retroversive-introversive manner. Artistic value is actualized by reason of this junction. But the description thus far has done no more than mark off artistic value from other primary modes of value. What positive characteristics do we experience when we encounter artistic value? 1 The other combinations are; r) retroversion-extraversion gives rise to scientific value; 2) proversion-extraversion gives rise to ethical value; 3) proversion-introversion gives rise to religious value.