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By Enrico G. Beltrametti, Jean-Marc Lévy-Leblond

Advent; E. Beltrametti, J.M. LévyLeblond.GeneralReviews: Experiments with unmarried Atoms in Cavities and Traps; H.Walther. Experiments with unmarried Atoms, Molecules, or Photons; S.Haroche. Quantum results with Ultracold Atoms; Y. Castin, et al. move of unmarried Electrons and unmarried Cooper Pairs in metal Nanostructures; M.H. Devoret, et al. Interferometry with debris of Nonzero relaxation Mass: Topological Experiments; G.L. Opat. Achievements in Neutron Interferometry; H. Rauch. Electron Interferometry and Holography; A. Tonomura. Quantum Phenomena and Their purposes in Semiconductor Microstructures; F. Capasso.Specific Topics: Quantum Fluctuations and Superconductivity; R. Fazio, A. Tagliacozzo. Spontaneous Localization and Superconductivity; A. Rimini. Photon-Photon Correlations from unmarried Atoms; M.O. Scully. Einstein Causality in Interatom Microcavity-confined Transverse Quantum Correlations; F. De Martini, M. Giangrasso. 3 reviews at the Aharonov-Bohm influence; M. Berry. protecting Measurements; Y. Aharonov,L. Vaidman. vulnerable Measurements; L. Vaidman. eight extra articles. Index.

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The detection of these particles is usually performed by picking up the tiny induction currents produced by the moving charge in the cap electrodes. The same method can also be applied to detect trapped ions. By comparing the cyclotron frequencies of different ion species, trapped one at a time in a Penning trap, different groups 16 are now measuring with an unprecedented precision the ratios of the masses of various elements, in an effort to replace the mass standard by a new atomic definition.

40:3127 (1969). 42. H. Walther, chaos and order of laser-cooled ions in a Paul trap, in: "Proc. of the Workshop on Light Induced Kinetic Effects on Atoms, Ions and Molecules", L. Moi, S. Gozzini, C. Gabbanini, E. Arimondo and F. , ETS Editrice, Pisa (1991). 43. I. Waki, S. Kassner, G. Birkl and H. Walther, Observation of ordered structures of laser-cooled ions in a quadrupole storage ring, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68:2007 (1992). 44. G. Birkl, S. Kassner and H. Walther, Nature 357:310 (1992). 45. RW. P.

The Rydberg atom interferometer can be set to produce a 7t phase shift per photon, by adjusting the atom cavity detuning. The frequency of the RI-R2 auxiliary field can also be adjusted so that the probability of detecting the atom in the n=51 level is unity if there is zero (or an even number of photons) in C, and equal to zero if there is one (or an odd number of photons). In this way the information yielded by the atom detector fixes the parity of the photon number in the cavity. Assume that the field is weak enough so that it contains on average much less than one photon, with a vansihing probability of containing two or more.

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