By John M. Morihisa
Albany scientific university, Albany, new york. deals clinicians and researchers greater figuring out of the speculation and perform of mind imaging in psychiatry. experiences functions to such issues as melancholy, obsessive-compulsive sickness, and schizophrenia. Softcover. DNLM: psychological issues - analysis.
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1998). Both medial and lateral hypofrontality have been reported in schizophrenia in both resting and activation studies, with most findings localizing to the DLPFC and the ACC. Since the vast majority of these studies were conducted at rest or predated the introduction of cognitive neuroscience methodology into psychiatric research, the relationship of altered DLPFC and ACC function to cognitive disability in schizophrenia has been unclear. For example, many previous activation studies used complex tasks that could not isolate the neural corCognitive Neuroscience 37 relates of specific cognitive mechanisms.
The ACC, in particular the cortex in the cingulate sulcus, also has rich efferent connections to multiple levels of the motor system, including the supplementary motor area, premotor and motor cortex, and anterior horn cells of the spinal cord (Dum and Strick 1993; Morecraft et al. 1997). The unique connectivity of this region, along with observations of brain-injured subjects and functional neuroimaging studies, has frequently led to the claim that the ACC is a critical element in the neural system associated with executive processes and behavioral regulation (D’Esposito et al.
Functioning. In this paradigm, subjects must maintain an attentional set across a several-second delay in order to prepare to respond correctly to a probe (the letter X) following a cue (the letter A). 5 second) and long-delay (9 second) versions of this task and showed that, while both groups activated inferior frontal and parietal regions during the long delay, schizophrenic patients failed to activate the DLPFC. Hence, even during their first episode, prior to treatment schizophrenic patients have an impaired preparatory attentional function of the DLPFC.