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By Karsten Schmidtke-Bode

This publication provides the 1st complete typology of objective clause buildings within the world’s languages. in keeping with a stratified type pattern of eighty languages, it uncovers the solidarity and variety of the morphosyntactic potential through which purposive family members are coded, and discusses the prestige of function clauses within the syntactic and conceptual area of advanced sentences. causes for considerably recurrent coding styles are couched in a usage-based method of language constitution, which can pay due cognizance to the cognitive and communicative pressures on utilization occasions concerning objective clauses, to frequency distributions of grammatical offerings in corpora, and to the ways that utilization personal tastes conventionalize in pathways of diachronic swap. The booklet integrates various earlier strands of study on function clauses with an intensive empirical research in its personal correct and hence displays the present state-of-the-art of crosslinguistic study into this distinct kind of adverbial clause.An appendix to A Typology of objective Clauses are available at the author's web site: www.karsten-schmidtke.net/purpose

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Deranked [102] Figure 6. Form of the verb in purpose clauses (adapted from Cristofaro 2005) 39 40 A Typology of Purpose Clauses Table 9. a. Deranked Mixed Africa Eurasia Oceania and NG Australia North America Mesoamerica South America 16 11 11 17 14 2 5 21 35 19 18 14 2 28 0 3 2 0 0 0 0 4 1 2 2 2 2 2 6 10 3 3 4 1 9 4 8 5 7 3 0 2 Total 76 137 5 15 36 29 we distinguished are not equally skewed for deranking in purpose clauses. As ­Table 9 and the ensuing diagram (Figure 7) show, some areas have a very strong proclivity for deranked verb forms (notably Eurasia and South America), while the skewing in other areas is much less pronounced (notably Africa, Australia and North America).

Which of the clause types is instantiated 5. 5). 25 reflects large effect sizes. The effect observed here is thus to be interpreted as significant though only moderate in size. Chapter 3. The grammar of purpose Table 8. 0 a mixed = the language has both balanced and deranked purposive constructions, but not necessarily the same amount of each by a larger number of constructions. This yields the results shown in Table 8. 21). That is, the construction-specific findings are basically replicated at the language level.

Our universally applicable metalanguage for identifying purpose clauses prevents us from glossing over such remarkable phenomena. In the context of defining purpose clauses, it should finally be mentioned that the alternative term ‘final clause’ is also used by many, especially more traditional, grammarians. g. ‘verb-final language’), I will not use this term as a synonym of purpose clauses. 4 Language sampling In addition to catering for the cross-linguistic comparability of purpose clauses, we now need to ensure that the languages chosen for the comparison are (a) rep- Chapter 2.

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