By Laurence R. Horn
Read or Download A Natural History of Negation PDF
Similar grammar books
Phi-features, akin to individual, quantity, and gender, current an extraordinary chance for syntacticians, morphologists and semanticists to collaborate on a learn company within which all of them have an equivalent stake and which all of them strategy with info and insights from their very own fields. This quantity is the 1st to try to compile those diversified strands and varieties of study.
This e-book analyzes compliments and praise responses in clearly happening talk-in-interaction in German. utilizing dialog Analytic method, it perspectives complimenting and responding to compliments as social activities that are co-produced and negotiated between interactants. This research is the 1st to investigate the total complimenting series in the better interactional context, thereby demonstrating the interconnectedness of series association, turn-design, and (varying) function(s) of a flip.
The Grammar of Q places forth a singular syntactic and semantic research of wh-questions, one who is predicated upon in-depth examine of the Tlingit language, an endangered and under-documented language of North the USA. an incredible end result of this new method is that the phenomenon classically dubbed "pied-piping" doesn't really exist.
"Language is basically a device for communique, but many textbooks nonetheless deal with English grammar as easily a collection of principles and proof to be memorised by means of rote. This new textbook is made for college kids who're annoyed with this technique and would favor in its place to appreciate grammar and the way it really works. Why are there destiny tenses in English?
Extra resources for A Natural History of Negation
More relevant to our purposes is the fact that the universal affirmative (All . Fs are G) is vacuously true if there are no Fs, as is the universal negative. h~ latter position is unarguable, at least when the E proposition is given in ItS 1Ocorporated form (No unicorns are equine). The former claim, however, has often struck critics as a reductio of the proposal that the predicate calculus can adequately model natural language semantics. Do we really want to count All unicorns are equine as true?
Stipulated by Aristotle, Royce, and Wittgenstein (and challenged by others, as we shall also see) dissuade their contemporaries (or, for that matter, themselves) from taking negatives to be inherently asymmetrical with, and in some sense inferior to, their affirmative counterparts. 5 Negation and the Legacy of Aristotle: Retrospect and Prospect Now if the oppositions are contradiction, privation, contrariety, and relatives, and since of these contradiction is primary, and nothing can exist between two contradictories but something may exist between two contraries, it is clear that contradictories and contraries are not the same.
By this criterion, affixal negation (un-, iN-, -less) does not yield (true) negation. In reaching this result, Ayer endorses what is for once a unanimous verdict (or near-unanimous: cf. 2 below): from the Peripatetics and the Stoics, for whom so-called privative statements-A is un-B-were affirmative in nature, to Sigwart (1895: 138), Strawson (1952:7), Zimmer (1964), and H. Clark (1974), it is universally agreed that affixal negation-well, at least most affixal negation (cf. 1)-produces a contrary affirmation, a 'polarization' (Vandamme 1972: 69), rather than a true contradictory.