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Additional resources for A handbook and grammar of the Tagalog language

Sample text

Phˇom1 nii2 1:male this ‘∗ this I’ c. raw1 th´aŋ2 lˇaaj3 1 all several ‘we all’ d. raw1 sˆyŋ2 pen’3 khon4 ruaj5 1 who be rich persons ‘we who are rich’ Further, even more so than in Japanese, they do not constitute a closed class. The expressions regularly used to designate person include proper names, kin terms and various relational terms such as ‘master’, ‘servant’, ‘individual crown of the head’, etc. Cooke (1968) mentions twenty-seven specialized terms for the first person and twenty-two for the second person.

Accordingly, the English possessive determiners are not considered to be strong forms. 3. Another point of controversy in regard to independent person forms is whether or not they are typologically unmarked relative to dependent forms. 2 Nonetheless, there is one correlate of typological markedness which we can address here. The existence of a typologically marked category, pattern, value or form is taken to entail the existence of the typologically unmarked category, pattern, value or form but not vice versa.

16) Japanese 1sg watasi, watakusi, ore, temae, boku, etc. 2sg anata, kimi, omae, temae, etc. Unlike in English and Polish, the pronouns do not differ morphologically from nouns, that is they form the plural by the same means as nouns (tomodachitachi ‘friend-pl’, watashi-tachi ‘I-pl’) and take the same postpositional case markers. They also display a greater range of modification possibilities and fewer restrictions on the modifiers that they permit than in the case of English or Polish. They may be modified by any adjective (17a), and significantly be preceded by a possessive pronoun (17b) or a demonstrative pronoun (17c).

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