By John Alexander
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During fermentation there is also likely to be an unwelcome rise in wort temperature due to the excess heat given off by the yeast as it metabolizes the increased nitrogenous matter in an energetic frenzy. Too high a temperature will produce racing fermentations and a disproportionate ratio of by-products, mostly esters and fusel oils, resulting in deleterious flavours. Although much of the nitrogenous element is precipitated during coppering and cooling, plus the amount consumed by yeast during fermentation, sufficient can remain to eventually produce haze and off-flavours during storage.
The aleurone itself is contained within a protective waterproof skin called the testa (or seedcoat) that contains waxy molecules, cellulose and lipids. Finally, we come to the pericarp and husk proper, which is largely made up of cellulose. Some hemicellulose is also present: this is another carbohydrate similar to cellulose, but containing complex polysaccharides called pentosans and the viscous β-glucan. The husk is also rich in silica, which is highly abrasive, and phenols (tannins) that are astringent.
Also, once the saccharometer settles in the wort, it forms a meniscus that obscures the true reading. Such capillary action is caused by surface tension, and it is more evident on round-stemmed saccharometers than flat ones. The discrepancy between the true reading and the top of the meniscus is about one degree; as the saccharometer bobs up and down, keep an eye on the meniscus, and if it appears to drag out of shape, this indicates that the instrument is not clean. A reading should be taken at eye level, and a degree of judgement is made to adjust for the meniscus: a small magnifying glass is useful in this respect.