By Wallace Chafe
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Extra info for A Grammar of the Seneca Language
Most have several uses. Some of these uses are productive, appearing with many verb bases whenever their meanings are appropriate. However, some verb bases require the presence of a specific prepronominal prefix, sometimes in a lexicalized construction with a specialized meaning. 2 shows the forms of their combinations with the three modal prefixes. 2. 2, the repetitive and cislocative prefixes *s- and *t- are positioned after the future prefix *ë- in *ës- and *ët-, but before the factual prefix *a- in *sa- and *ta-.
Similarly, a neuter singular patient is overtly marked (with the forms numbered 24 in the upper right cell) when it is not combined with a human agent. If a human agent is also present, a neuter singular patient is not overtly marked. For example, ‘he planted it’ is expressed as wá:yëto’ (*wa’hayëtho’) with the masculine singular agent prefix *ha- ‘he’ and no marking of ‘it’. In fact, wá:yëto’ is ambiguous in the sense that it can mean either ‘he planted it’ (with a neuter singular patient) or simply ‘he planted’ (an intransitive statement without a patient).
The absence of accenting on initial and final vowels. The first and last vowels of a word were exempt from word-level accenting. The trochaic pattern was established by ignoring the first vowel, and the last vowel could not belong to the first syllable of a trochee. 1). 6. Accent spreading. The loss of r and of intervocalic h often produced uninterrupted vowel sequences. If the second of two adjacent vowels was accented the accent spread backward to include both of them, as in ë́ ö́dekö:ni’ (*ëhatekhöni’) ‘he will eat’.