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Additional resources for A Grammar of Modern Latvian (Slavistic Printings and Reprintings ; No. 304) Vol.1
The sentence is ‘‘The clown kissed the Doberman,’’ where kissed follows clown. A related problem occurs in well-drawn trees such as (23): A B D E C F G J H K L M Does J precede F? It is not to the right of F nor to the left of it. L is similar to kissed in (22). It appears to the left of F, but most syntacticians would understand it to follow F. Precedence appears to be at least partly dependent upon the dominance relation, and cannot be deWned with dominance. To see this is true, take the tree in (23) again, but this time draw a box22 from L all the way up to the root node, surrounding only the lines and nodes that dominate L.
Nothing in particular rides on the content or names of these labels. What is important in these diagrams is the constituent structure. 24 preliminaries S (46) NP N Dory VP V kissed NP D the N P man with PP NP D A N an open mouth Under the compositionality hypothesis, hierarchical constituent structure thus also allows us to provide an explanation for syntactic ambiguity. 5 Some concluding thoughts In this chapter, I started with the hypothesis that sentences may be structured linearly from left to right by some operation of concatenation.
16 Based on Higginbotham (1982/1985). See Sampson (1975) and Blevins (1990), who argue that the single-mother requirement should be relaxed and multidomination allowed. basic properties of trees 35 Below, we will see that a diVerent axiom (the non-tangling condition, A9) rules out (11) as well as some other ill-formed trees, so we will be able to eliminate (A5); I list it here for completeness. Trees such as (11) will be a recurring question throughout this book. 3 Immediate dominance Because of transitivity (A3, above), M in (1)—repeated here—dominates all of the nodes under it.