By Russell G. Schuh
A Grammar of Miya describes a language of the Chadic kinfolk spoken in Northern Nigeria. this can be the 1st documentation of Miya apart from note lists. The grammar describes all elements of the language. Of specific typological curiosity are the tone approach, a "terraced point" method within which tone operates over multi-syllabic domain names, and observe order, that's VXS in lots of contexts.
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Extra info for A Grammar of Miya (University of California Publications in Linguistics)
Bd (m), rna (f) 'one who does ... , one who has ... ' (10:§S) 5. e. according to my transcription, they sometimes are pronounced with the same level as a preceding H, sometimes with a downstepped H after H. Phrases with these morphemes are very common, and I have transcribed enough examples with both patterns to be confident that this variation is real. There is one substantive item and several monosyllabic grammatical morphemes which have the following tone pattern: (a) H after L (b) H after H, but at the same level rather than downstepped H (c) H phrase initial Characteristic (a) suggests that the underlying tone is H, but characteristics (b) and (c) are behaviors expected of Toneless domains via TONE SPREAD and DEFAULT H TONE respectively.
Takon [-- H L - -- 'my lion' ('lion my') 'this tendon of a goat' --] The register step referred to in HIGH REGISTER SETIING is about one semitone. If the initial tone of a tonal phrase is L, HIGH REGISTER SETIING sets the register to the level it would have if the utterance had begun with H. e. with a tonal pattern identical to that associated with the corresponding words in the longer phrase. One could say that any speaker has a "target H" which will begin an utterance, but this target will not be overt if the utterance begins in L.
Recent work in Optimality Theory would, of course, not resort to procedural rules at all. e. the application of rules over extended domains (as opposed to syllables or words), the tonal dependence of certain domains (caned Toneless here) on other domains, the ~ro~s-utterance identity of certain domains (called H here) despite the fact that they have different pitch realIZattons depending on whether they are phrase initial or medial, and thc H or L pitch realization of ccrtain syllables based on a combination of tonal and segmental factors (accounted for the LOW RAISING here).